German Colour Terms: A study in their historical evolution from earliest times to the present
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Knopf: New York. Berger, T.
Developments from the 1970s to the present
Patterns of trauma among the Neandertals. Journal of Archaeological Science 22, Schmitt, D. Experimental evidence concerning spear use in Neandertals and early modern humans. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, Lalueza-Fox, C. Science , Stringer, C. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar. Shipman, P. Separating "us" from "them": Neanderthal and modern human behavior. Compared to early humans living in tropical Africa, with more abundant edible plant foods available year-round, the number of plant foods Neanderthals could eat would have dropped significantly during the winter of colder climates, forcing Neanderthals to exploit other food options like meat more heavily.
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There is evidence that Neanderthals were specialized seasonal hunters, eating animals were available at the time i. Scientists have clear evidence of Neanderthal hunting from uncovering sharp wooden spears and large numbers of big game animal remains were hunted and butchered by Neanderthals. There is also evidence from Gibraltar that when they lived in coastal areas, they exploited marine resources such as mollusks, seals, dolphins and fish.
Scientists have also found plaque on the remains of molar teeth containing starch grains—concrete evidence that Neanderthals ate plants. This innovative technique allowed flakes of predetermined shape to be removed and fashioned into tools from a single suitable stone.
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Acheulean tools worked from a suitable stone that was chipped down to tool form by the removal of flakes off the surface. Neanderthals used tools for activities like hunting and sewing. Scientists have also recovered scrapers and awls larger stone or bone versions of the sewing needle that modern humans use today associated with animal bones at Neanderthal sites. Neanderthals were the first early humans to wear clothing, but it is only with modern humans that scientists find evidence of the manufacture and use of bone sewing needles to sew together tighter fitting clothing.
Neanderthals also controlled fire, lived in shelters, and occasionally made symbolic or ornamental objects. This may be one of the reasons that the Neanderthal fossil record is so rich compared to some earlier human species; being buried greatly increases the chance of becoming a fossil! Both fossil and genetic evidence indicate that Neanderthals and modern humans Homo sapiens evolved from a common ancestor between , and , years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans belong to the same genus Homo and inhabited the same geographic areas in Asia for 30,—50, years; genetic evidence indicate while they may have interbred with non-African modern humans, they are separate branches of the human family tree separate species.
Evolution of modern humans
Over just a few thousand years after modern humans moved into Europe, Neanderthal numbers dwindled to the point of extinction. All traces of Neanderthals disappeared by about 40, years ago. The most recently dated Neanderthal fossils come from western Europe, which was likely where the last population of this early human species existed.
In , the first nearly complete skeleton of a Neanderthal was found at La Chapelle-aux-Saints in France. Because he suffered from a degenerative joint disease, this skeleton was originally reconstructed as stooped over.
This slouching posture came to exemplify our image of Neanderthals, but it was later found that this reconstruction was incorrect. This is the largest and most complete Neanderthal skull ever found. It was discovered in , along with several other Neanderthal fossils, in the rock shelter of La Ferrassie in southwestern France. Neanderthals used this shelter thousands of years before the arrival of Homo sapiens in Europe. At a young age, this Neanderthal experienced a crushing blow to his head.
It damaged his left eye socket and the brain area that controlled the right side of his body, leading to a withered right arm. Part 2 describes and documents the formation of popular colour taxonomies and specialised nomenclatures in German across many periods and fields.
Chariots of fire
The textual data examined will be of relevance to cultural historians in fields as far apart as philosophy, religious symbolism, medicine, mineralogy, optics, fine art, fashion, and dyeing technology. Part 3 — the core of the work — traces linguistic developments in systematic detail across more than twelve centuries. Special attention is given to the evolving meanings of colour terms, their connotative values, figurative extensions, morphological productivity, and lexicographical registration. New light is shed on a range of scholarly issues and controversies, in ways relevant to German lexicologists and to specialists in other languages, notably French and English.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 27 august Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them. William Jervis Jones. Hardbound — Available Buy now. This monograph provides, for the first time, a comprehensive historical analysis of German colour words from early beginnings to the present, based on data obtained from over one thousand texts.
List of figures.
Linguistic relativity and the color naming debate
Appendix B. Extract from Christoph Arnold — , Kunst-spiegel Appendix C. William Dodd , in Germanistik, Band 55, Heft , The work also helps to fill a major gap in the literature. A diachronic approach introduces further complication, and yet the author has brought order to this almost chaotic semantic field, and done so with clarity and rigour. Griber, Yulia A. Paramei