From Specification to Embedded Systems Application
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Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview As almost no other technology, embedded systems is an essential element of many innovations in automotive engineering. Product Details Table of Contents. Table of Contents Design Methodology. Show More. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. The book summarizes the findings and contributions of the European ARTEMIS project, CESAR, for improving and enabling interoperability of methods, tools, and processes to meet the demands in embedded systems development across four domains - avionics, automotive, automation, and rail.
Classification of embedded system with details
Embedded System Applications. CWI's part consists of the development and execution of the conformance tests by means of logical models and extended finite-state models, to be derived from the relevant standards and system documentation. Furthermore, there is an ongoing involvement in the European COST programme, which focuses on the formal specification and verification, validation and testing of software in realistic problems in contemporary distributed communication architectures.
A second branch of activity at CWI concerns proof searching and proof checking. The first aim is to increase the efficiency of current symbolic techniques to verify requirements on processes by a fundamental understanding of proof search in simple logical systems in casu propositional logic.
Secondly, proof checking methods are developed in order to establish the correctness of programmed systems "beyond any reasonable doubt". A recent application is the propositional logic tool Heerhugo. Heerhugowaard is the largest train station in The Netherlands operating with a VPI Vital Process Interlocking system, which is a kind of programmable controller.
The system has to comply with several safety requirements, for example: "trains should not derail", or: "if a signal is green, the next one should not be red". All these requirements can be formulated as statements in propositional logic. The check on all requirements being satisfied is an NP-complete problem. For this particular case CWI succeeded to construct a workable prover, Heerhugo. The outputs are typically displays, communication signals, or changes to the physical world. See Figure for a general example of an embedded system.
Embedded Systems | What Are Embedded Systems?
With the exception of these few common features, the rest of the embedded hardware is usually unique and, therefore, requires unique software. This variation is the result of many competing design criteria. The software for the generic embedded system shown in Figure varies depending on the functionality needed. The hardware is the blank canvas, and the software is the paint that we add in order to make the picture come to life.
Figure gives just a couple of possible high-level diagrams that could be implemented on such a generic embedded system. Both the basic embedded software diagram in Figure a and the more complex embedded software diagram in Figure b contain very similar blocks. The hardware block is common in both diagrams. The device drivers are embedded software modules that contain the functionality to operate the individual hardware devices. The reason for the device driver software is to remove the need for the application to know how to control each piece of hardware.
Each individual device driver would typically need to know only how to control its hardware device. For instance, for a microwave oven, separate device drivers control the keypad, display, temperature probe, and radiation control. If more functionality is required, it is sometimes necessary to include additional layers in the embedded software to assist with this added functionality.
In this example, the complex diagram includes a real-time operating system RTOS and a networking stack. We will investigate the use of an RTOS later in this book.
The network stack also adds to the functionality of the basic embedded system; a microwave oven might use it to pop up a message on your desktop computer when your lunch is ready. The responsibilities of the application software layer is the same in both the basic and the complex embedded software diagrams. In a microwave oven, the application processes the different inputs and controls the outputs based on what the user commands it to do. This is done deliberately, to indicate the separation of the different software functional layers that make up the complete embedded software system.
Later, we will break down these blocks further to show you how you can keep your embedded software clean, easy to read, and portable. Keeping these software layers distinct, with well-defined methods that neighboring layers can use to communicate, helps you write good embedded software. Each embedded system must meet a completely different set of requirements, any or all of which can affect the compromises and trade-offs made during the development of the product.
Of course, production cost is only one of the possible constraints under which embedded hardware designers work. Other common design requirements include:. The workload that the main chip can handle. A common way to compare processing power is the millions of instructions per second MIPS rating. However, other important features of the processor need to be considered. One is the register width, which typically ranges from 8 to 64 bits.
Lecture #15: Specification of Embedded Systems
Here the hardware designer must usually make his best estimate up front and be prepared to increase or decrease the actual amount as the software is being developed. The amount of memory required can also affect the processor selection. In general, the register width of a processor establishes the upper limit of the amount of memory it can access e.
The expected production run.
The trade-off between production cost and development cost is affected most by the number of units expected to be produced and sold. For example, it rarely makes sense to develop custom hardware components for a low-volume product.
What is an embedded system?
The amount of power used during operation. This is extremely important, especially for battery-powered portable devices. Lower power consumption can also lead to other favorable device characteristics, such as less heat, smaller batteries, less weight, smaller size, and simpler mechanical design. The cost of the hardware and software design processes, known as nonrecurring engineering NRE.
This is a fixed, one-time cost, so on some projects, money is no object usually for high-volume products , whereas on other projects, this is the only accurate measure of system cost for the production of a small number of units. How long the product is expected to stay in use. The required or expected lifetime affects all sorts of design decisions, from the selection of hardware components to how much system development and production is allowed to cost.
How long must the system continue to function on average? A month, a year, or a decade? How reliable the final product must be. In addition to these general requirements, each system has detailed functional requirements. These are the things that give the embedded system its unique identity as a microwave oven, pacemaker, or pager. Table illustrates the range of typical values for each of the previous design requirements.
An actual product has one selection from each row.