Coptic Future Tenses: Syntactical Studies in Sahidic
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Nash 12, l. It is introduced by the preposition Hr in Ex. It should be noted that, in both examples, the infinitive governed by Sm is not introduced by r see also Ex. BCE-5th c. Furthermore, as will be seen below, there is a significant time gap between the emergence of the construction in the Late Egyptian corpus at the end of the 20th dynasty and its first occurrences in Demotic: the first certain examples of the Later Egyptian Allative Future in Demotic can be dated to the 1st century CE,52 i. In this section, we first present a short overview of the verb na in Demotic when used as a lexical verb of motion; we then turn to the future constructions based on this verb and their syntactic environments; the final part of this section will be devoted to the study of the selectional restrictions still in place on the use of the Later Egyptian Allative Future in Demotic.
Indeed, these three examples belong to different genres, e. More over, they range from Early Demotic P.
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Harkness : Ex. Marseille , ro 8 — Thebes — 3rd c. It occurs 64 times in the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae as of January , which does not cover the whole Demotic documentation. The spelling of na in this construction varies quite a bit in the corpus Texts Transliteration Writing P.
MH ; Setne I; Inaros na. Magical LL; O. LL; Setne II in-na. The context favors the first interpret- tation, i.
It probably makes more sense to simply understand this sentence as a future tense. Much in the same vein are examples where the infinitive phrase is built with a verb of goal-oriented motion, which shows that the na is a future auxiliary and cannot be understood as a verb of motion 60 Concerning the presence of a final. This construction is not yet very common in Demotic, but 45 examples from 24 different texts have been found in the whole Demotic corpus. When compared to the construction with the allative preposition r, this second construction involving na display two interesting features.
Second, at the graphemic level, except for the examples from one document,65 all texts exhibit a non-etymological writing of the verb na, in sharp contrast with the first construction compare Fig. In addition to the examples quoted in this study, see O. MH , D; O. MH , D; P. In terms of diatopic variation, the 24 texts in which the examples are found come from the Fayyum, Abydos, Thebes, El-Hesa near Aswan and the Dodecaschaenus, which means that the construction occurs in documents ranging from all over Egypt. Aswan nA Fig. Of these 15 attestations, all but two appear in a very specific context, i.
It typically reads as follows: Ex.
This phenomenon is acknowledged by several authors see e. Depauw 26; Johnson 2 , but see Tait for a different view. It is remarkable that the scribe of this text uses a non-etymological spelling of na for the last construction solely. BC possible. Here we cite some examples from the temple of Khonsu in Karnak69 that are characteristic of earlier uses: Ex.
Khonsu] will erase his name. MSG footprint of D. While this construction is still found in numerous examples of the Demotic graffiti of the Dodecaschenus, the following examples show that the new future construction is also found in this environment: Ex.
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MSG stela nA[e] f[t What can be inferred about the semantics of these examples? In these relative clauses, the available inferences are clearly subject-oriented and not speaker-oriented.
Coptic future tenses: syntactical studies in Sahidic
This can be illustrated by other examples of the Later Egyptian Allative Future construction in relative clauses, where the subject is a fully intentional sometimes divine entity: Ex. One isolated example is worth mentioning. We will illustrate below the various syntactic construction in which the Future I occurs. First, it can be used autonomously in independent main clauses 13 examples , both declarative see below Ex.
MSG-1SG healing? Indeed, some of the oldest examples in Late Egyptian are already found after the relative marker nty and the backshifter wn. CE-early 3rd c. CE , whose chief characteristic is their use of Greek words written with the Greek alphabet, has changed this situation.